Clinical & Scientific Publications

1) Accessed April 14 2017.
2) Roehrborn, Claus G. “Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: An Overview.” Reviews in Urology 7.Suppl 9 (2005): S3–S14. Print.
4) Rosenberg, M.T. M. Miner, P. A. Riley and D.R. Statskin. “STEP: Simplified Treatment of the Enlarged Prostate.” Int J Clin Pract. (2010);64(4):488-496.
6) Talpur N1, Echard B, Bagchi D, Bagchi M, Preuss HG. Comparison of Saw Palmetto (extract and whole berry) and cernitin on prostate growth in rats. Mol Cell Biochem. 2003 Aug;250(1-2):21-6
7) Cai T et al. Serenoa repens associated with Urtica dioica and curcumin and quercitin extracts are able to improve the efficacy of prulifloxacin in bacterial prostatitis patients: results from a prospective randomized study. Int J Antimicrob Agents 2009 Jun; 33(6): 549-53
8) Pais P. Potency of a novel saw palmetto ethanol extract, SPET-05, for inhibition of 5-alpha-reductase II. Adv Ther 2010 Aug; 27(8): 555-63
9) productId=114&pid=33&gid=000018. Accessed April 16, 2017.
10) Goldmann WH, Sharma AL, Currier SJ, Johnston PD, Rana A, Sharma CP. Saw palmetto berry extract inhibits cell growth and Cox-2 expression in prostatic cancer cells. Cell Biol Int. 2001;25(11):1117-2
11) Yang, Y., Ikezoe, T., Zheng, Z., Taguchi, H., Koeffler, H. P., Zhu, W."Saw Palmetto induces growth arrest and apoptosis of androgen-dependent prostate cancer LNCaP cells via inactivation of STAT 3 and androgen receptor signaling". International Journal of Oncology 31.3 (2007): 593-600.
12) Berges RR, Windeler J, Tramisch HJ et al. Randomized, placebo controlled clinical trial of beta sitosterol in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia. Beta -Sitosterol Study Group. Lancet 1995:345:1529-1532
13) Klipper KF, Hiltl DM, Schipp BA. Multicentric, placebo-controlled, double blind clinical trial of beta sitosterol (phytosterol) for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia., German BPH-Phyto Study Group. BR J Urol. 1997 Sep;80(3):427-432.
14) Gerber GS, Kuznetsov D, Johnson BC, Burstein JD. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of saw palmetto in men with lower urinary tract symptoms Urology 200158960–4.discussion 964–5.
15) Kravchick SG et al at the 27th Annual European Association of Urology Congress, February 24-28, 2012, Paris, France.
16) Carraro JC, JP Raynaud, G Koch, et al. Comparison of phytotherapy w (Permixon) with finasteride in the treatment of benign prostate hyperplasia: a randomized international study of 1,098 patients. Prostate. 196 Octl28(4):231-40; discussion 241-2.
17) Sinescu I, Geavlete P, Multescu R, Gangu C, Miclea F, Coman I, Ioiart I, Ambert V, Constantin T, Petrut B, Feciche B, Long-Term Efficacy of Serenoa repens Treatment in Patients with Mild and Moderate Symptomatic Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia. Urol Int 2011;86:284-289
18) Ghorbanibirgani A, Khalili A, Zamani L. The Efficacy of Stinging Nettle (Urtica Dioica) in Patients with Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: A Randomized Double-Blind Study in 100 Patients. Iran Red Cres Med J. 2013;15(1):9-10. DOI:10.5812/ircmj.2386
19) Nahata, A. and Dixit, V. K. (2012), Ameliorative effects of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) on testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia in rats. Andrologia, 44: 396–409.
20) Pavone, C. D. Abbadessa, ML Tarantino, et al. Associating Serenoa repens, Uritca dioca and pinus pinaster. Safety and efficacynin lower urinary tract symptoms. Prospective study on 320 patients.Yrologia 2010; 77(1): 43-51.
21) Safarinejad MR. Urtica dioica for treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia: a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. J Herb Pharmacother 2005; 5(4):1-11.
22) Lopatkin N, et al Long-term efficacy and safety of a combination of sabal and urtica extract for lower urinary tract symptoms--a placebo-controlled, double-blind, multicenter trial . World J Urol. (2005)
23) Bondarenko B, et al Long-term efficacy and safety of PRO 160/120 (a combination of sabal and urtica extract) in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Phytomedicine. (2003)
24) Ma Z et al. Reduction of rat prostate weight by combined quercetin-finasteride treatment is associated with cell cycle deregulation. J Endocrinol 2004 Jun; 181(3): 493-507.
25) Shoskes DA et al. Phenotypically directed multimodal therapy for chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome: a prospective study using UPOINT. Urology 2010 Jun; 75(6): 1249-53
27) Kim YH, Lee YJ. TRAIL apoptosis is enhanced by quercetin through Akt dephosphorylation. J Cell Biochem 2007 Mar 1; 100(4): 998-1009
28) Lee DH et al. Role of Bax in quercetin-induced apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells. Biochem Pharmacol 2008 Jun 15; 75(12): 2345-55
29) Shoskes DA et al. Quercetin in men with category III chronic prostatitis: a preliminary prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Urology 1999; 54(6):960-63
30) Ferry DR1, Smith A, Malkhandi J, Fyfe DW, deTakats PG, Anderson D, Baker J, Kerr DJ. Phase I clinical trial of the flavonoid quercetin: pharmacokinetics and evidence for in vivo tyrosine kinase inhibition. Clin Cancer Res. 1996 Apr;2(4):659-68.
31) Xing N, Chen Y, Mitchell SH and Young CY: Quercetin inhibits the expression and function of the androgen receptor in LNCaP prostate cancer cells. Carcinogenesis 22: 409-414, 2001.
32) Wang G, Song L, Wang H and Xing N: Quercetin synergizes with 2-methoxyestradiol inhibiting cell growth and inducing apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells. Oncol Rep 30: 357-363,2013.
33) Andro MC, Riffaud JP. Pygeum africanun extract for treatment of patients with BPH: a review of 25 years of published experience. Curr Ther Res. 1995;56:796-817.
34) Carani C, Salvioli V, Scuteri A, et al. Urological and sexual evaluation of treatment of benign prostatic disease using Pygeum africanum at high doses. Arch Ital Urol Nefrol Androl. 1991 Sep;63(3):341-5
35) Chatelain C et al. Comparison of once and twice daily dosage forms of Pygeum africanum extract in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia: a randomized, double-blind study, with long-term open label extension. Urology 1999 Sep; 54(3):473-78.
36) Barlet A et al. Efficacy of Pygeum africanum extract in the treatment of micturational disorders due to benign prostatic hyperplasia. Evaluation of objective and subjective parameters. A multicenter, randomized, double-blind trial. Wein Klin Wochenschr 1990;102:667–73.
37) Breza J et al. Efficacy and acceptability of tadenan (Pygeum africanum extract) in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH): a multicentre trial in central Europe. Curr Med Res Opin 1998; 14(3):127-39.
38) Papaioannou M et al. NBBS isolated from Pygeum africanum bark exhibits androgen antagonistic activity, inhibits AR nuclear translocation and prostate cancer cell growth. Invest New Drugs 2010 Dec; 28(6): 729-43
39) Papaioannou M et al. The natural compound atraric acid is an antagonist of the human androgen receptor inhibiting cellular invasiveness and prostate cancer cell growth. J Cell Mol Med 2009 Aug; 13(8B): 2210-23
40) Yablonsky FP et al. Antiproliferative effect of Pygeum africanum extract on rat prostatic fibroblasts. J Urol 1997; 157:2381-87.
41) Levin RM, Riffaud JP, Bellamy F, et al. Effects of Tadenan pretreatment on bladder physiology and biochemistry following partial outlet obstruction. J Urol. 1996;156:2084-2088.
42) Santa María Margalef A1, Paciucci Barzanti R, Reventós Puigjaner J, Morote Robles J, Thomson Okatsu TM. [Antimitogenic effect of Pygeum africanum extracts on human prostatic cancer cell lines and explants from benign prostatic hyperplasia]. Arch Esp Urol. 2003 May;56(4):369-78.
43) D Boulbès et al. Pygeum Africanum Extract Inhibits Proliferation of Human Cultured Prostatic Fibroblasts and Myofibroblasts. BJU Int 98 (5), 1106-1113. 11 2006.
44) MT Quiles et al. Antiproliferative and Apoptotic Effects of the Herbal Agent Pygeum Africanum on Cultured Prostate Stromal Cells From Patients With Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) . Prostate 70 (10), 1044-1053. 2010 Jul 01.
45) Papaioannou M et al. NBBS isolated from Pygeum africanum bark exhibits androgen antagonistic activity, inhibits AR nuclear translocation and prostate cancer cell growth. Invest New Drugs 2010 Dec; 28(6): 729-43
46)/ Papaioannou M et al. The natural compound atraric acid is an antagonist of the human androgen receptor inhibiting cellular invasiveness and prostate cancer cell growth. J Cell Mol Med 2009 Aug; 13(8B): 2210-3
47) Accessed April 14, 2017
48) Andro MC, Riffaud JP. Pygeum africanum extract for the treatment of patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia: a review of 25 years of published experience. Curr Ther Res 1995;56:796-817.
49) Monograph. Pygeum africanum. Alternative Medicine Review. V7(1).2002
50) Alschuler L. Grean Tea: Healing tonic. Am J Natur Med 1998;5:28-31.
51) Graham HN. Green tea composition, consumption, and polyphenol chemistry. Prev Med 1992;21:334-350.
52) Nihal A, Hasan M. Green tea polyphenols and cancer: biological mechanisms and practical implications. Nutr Rev1999;57:78-83.
53) Ahmad N, Feyes DK, Nieminen AL, et al. Green tea constituent epigallacatechin-3-gallate and induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in human carcinoma cells. J Natl Cancer Inst 1997;89:1881-1886.
54) Adhami VM, Siddiqui IA, Sarfaraz S, et al.: Effective prostate cancer chemopreventive intervention with green tea polyphenols in the TRAMP model depends on the stage of the disease. Clin Cancer Res 15 (6): 1947-53, 2009.
55) Gupta S, Hastak K, Ahmad N, et al.: Inhibition of prostate carcinogenesis in TRAMP mice by oral infusion of green tea polyphenols. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98 (18): 10350-5, 2001.
56) Kim SJ, Amankwah E, Connors S, et al.: Safety and chemopreventive effect of Polyphenon E in preventing early and metastatic progression of prostate cancer in TRAMP mice. Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 7 (4): 435-44, 2014.
57) Kumar NB, Pow-Sang J, Egan KM, et al.: Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Green Tea Catechins for Prostate Cancer Prevention. Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 8 (10): 879-87, 2015
58) Bettuzzi S, Brausi M, Rizzi F, et al.: Chemoprevention of human prostate cancer by oral administration of green tea catechins in volunteers with high-grade prostate intraepithelial neoplasia: a preliminary report from a one-year proof-of-principle study. Cancer Res 66 (2): 1234-40, 2006
59) Brausi M, Rizzi F, Bettuzzi S: Chemoprevention of human prostate cancer by green tea catechins: two years later. A follow-up update. Eur Urol 54 (2): 472-3, 2008.
60) Henning SM, P Wang, JW Sais, et al. Randomized clinical trial of brewed green and black tea in men with prostate cancer prior to prostatectomy. Prostate. 2015 Aoril; 75(5):550-559.
61) McLarty J, Bigelow RLH, Smith M et al. Tea Polyphenols Decrease Serum Levels of Prostate-Specific Antigen, Hepatocyte Growth Factor, and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Prostate Cancer Patients and Inhibit Production of Hepatocyte Growth Factor and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor In vitro. Cancer Prevention Research, June 19 2009
62) Nguyen M, FR Ahmann, RB Nagle, et al. Randomized, Double blind, placebo controlled trial of polyphenon E in Prostate cancer patients before prostatectomy:Evaliuation of potential chemopreventive activities. Canc er Prev Res (Phila). 2012 Feb; 5(2):290-298.
63) Obermüller-Jevic UC, Olano-Martin E, Corbacho AM, et al.: Lycopene inhibits the growth of normal human prostate epithelial cells in vitro. J Nutr 133 (11): 3356-60, 2003.
64) Ford NA, Elsen AC, Zuniga K, et al.: Lycopene and apo-12'-lycopenal reduce cell proliferation and alter cell cycle progression in human prostate cancer cells. Nutr Cancer 63 (2): 256-63, 2011.
65) Yang CM, Lu IH, Chen HY, et al.: Lycopene inhibits the proliferation of androgen-dependent human prostate tumor cells through activation of PPARγ-LXRα-ABCA1 pathway. J Nutr Biochem 23 (1): 8-17, 2012.
66) Zhang X, Wang Q, Neil B, et al.: Effect of lycopene on androgen receptor and prostate-specific antigen velocity. Chin Med J (Engl) 123 (16): 2231-6, 2010.
67) Mariani S, Lionetto L, Cavallari M, et al.: Low prostate concentration of lycopene is associated with development of prostate cancer in patients with high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia. Int J Mol Sci 15 (1): 1433-40, 2014
68) Qiu X, Yuan Y, Vaishnav A, et al.: Effects of lycopene on protein expression in human primary prostatic epithelial cells. Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 6 (5): 419-27, 2013.
69) Tang Y, Parmakhtiar B, Simoneau AR, et al.: Lycopene enhances docetaxel's effect in castration-resistant prostate cancer associated with insulin-like growth factor I receptor levels. Neoplasia 13 (2): 108-19, 2011.
70) Konijeti R, Henning S, Moro A, et al.: Chemoprevention of prostate cancer with lycopene in the TRAMP model. Prostate 70 (14): 1547-54, 2010.
71) Kim HS, Bowen P, Chen L, et al.: Effects of tomato sauce consumption on apoptotic cell death in prostate benign hyperplasia and carcinoma. Nutr Cancer 47 (1): 40-7, 2003
72) Kucuk O, Sarkar FH, Djuric Z, et al.: Effects of lycopene supplementation in patients with localized prostate cancer. Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 227 (10): 881-5, 2002
73) Yang CM, Yen YT, Huang CS, et al.: Growth inhibitory efficacy of lycopene and β-carotene against androgen-independent prostate tumor cells xenografted in nude mice. Mol Nutr Food Res 55 (4): 606-12, 2011.
74) Yang CM, Lu YL, Chen HY, et al.: Lycopene and the LXRα agonist T0901317 synergistically inhibit the proliferation of androgen-independent prostate cancer cells via the PPARγ-LXRα-ABCA1 pathway. J Nutr Biochem 23 (9): 1155-62, 2012.
75) Gann PH, Ma J, Giovannucci E, et al.: Lower prostate cancer risk in men with elevated plasma lycopene levels: results of a prospective analysis. Cancer Res 59 (6): 1225-30, 1999.
76) Ansari, M.S. and Gupta, N.P. A comparison of lycopene and orchidectomy vs orchidectomy alone in the management of advanced prostate cancer. BJU International. 92(4) 375-378,2003.
77) Schwarz S , U Obermueller-Jevic, E Hellmis, et al. Lycopene inhibits disease progression in patients with Benign prostate hyperplasia. 139(1) 49-53.
78)/ Mohanty NK, S Saxena, UP Singh, et al. Lycopene as a chemopreventive agent in the treatment of high grade prostate intraepithelial neoplasma. Urol Oncol. 2005 Nov-Dec;23(6):383-5.
79) The Alpha-Tocopherol Beta Carotene Cancer Prevention Study Group The effect of vitamin E and beta carotene on the incidence of lung cancer and other cancers in male smokers. N Engl J Med 1994;330(15):1029-35.
80) Muecke R, T Klotz, J Geidl, et al. Whole Blood selenium levels in patients with prostate cancer(PC), benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and healthy male inhabitants (HMI) and prostatic tissue selenium levels (PTSL) in patient with PC and BPH. Acta Pncologica. 48:452-456, 2009.
81) Clark, LC, B Dalkin, A Krongrad, et al. Decreased incidence of prostate cancer with selenium supplementation: results of a double blind cancer prevention trial. British J of Urol. (1998), 81: 730-734.
82) Allen NE et al. Plasma selenium concentration and prostate cancer risk: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Dec;88(6):1567-75.
83) Li H, Stampfer MJ, Giovannucci EL , et al. A prospective study of plasma selenium levels and prostate cancer risk. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2004 ;96(9):696–703.
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85) Zhang W, Joseph E, Hitchcock C, et al.: Selenium glycinate supplementation increases blood glutathione peroxidase activities and decreases prostate-specific antigen readings in middle-aged US men. Nutr Res 31 (2): 165-8, 2011.
86) Hurst R, Hooper L, Norat T, et al.: Selenium and prostate cancer: systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr 96 (1): 111-22, 2
87) Pinto JT, Sinha R, Papp K, et al.: Differential effects of naturally occurring and synthetic organoselenium compounds on biomarkers in androgen responsive and androgen independent human prostate carcinoma cells. Int J Cancer 120 (7): 1410-7, 2007.
88) Kong L, Yuan Q, Zhu H, et al.: The suppression of prostate LNCaP cancer cells growth by Selenium nanoparticles through Akt/Mdm2/AR controlled apoptosis. Biomaterials 32 (27): 6515-22, 2011
89) Sarveswaran S, Liroff J, Zhou Z, et al.: Selenite triggers rapid transcriptional activation of p53, and p53-mediated apoptosis in prostate cancer cells: Implication for the treatment of early-stage prostate cancer. Int J Oncol 36 (6): 1419-28, 2010.
90) Zhang Y, J Ni, E Massing, et al., Vitamin E succubate inhibits the function for androgen receptor and the expression of prostate-specific antigen in prostate cancer cells. PNAS. 99(11), 7408-13. May 2002.
91) Limpens J, F Schroeder, C de Ridder, et al Combined Lycopene and Vitamin E Treatment Suppresses the Growth of PC-346C Human Prostate Cancer Cells in Nude Mice J. Nutr. May 2006 136: 1287-1293.
92) M Malafa, F Fokum et al. Vitamin E Succinate suppresses prostate tumor growth by inducing apoptosis. Intl J of Cancer. 118(10).2441-7.2006.
93) Adorini L, Penna G, Fibbi B, et al. Vitamin D receptor agonists target static, dynamic, and inflammatory components of bening prostatic hyperplasia. Ann NY Acad Sci. 2010 Apr;1193:146-152. Review.
94) Costello LC, Franklin RB, Tan MT. A critical assessment of epidemiology studies regarding dietary/supplemental zinc and prostate cancer risk. Open Urol Nephrol J. 2008;1.
95) Franklin RB, Costello LC. Zinc as an anti-tumor agent in prostate cancer and in other cancers. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2007 Jul 15;463(2):211-7.
96) Medarova Z, Ghosh SK, Vangel M, Drake R, Moore A. Risk stratification of prostate cancer patients based on EPS-urine zinc content. Am J Cancer Res. 2014;4(4):385-93.
97) Park SY, Wilkens LR, Morris JS, Henderson BE, Kolonel LN. Serum zinc and prostate cancer risk in a nested case-control study: The multiethnic cohort. Prostate. 2013 Feb 15;73(3):261-6.
98) Prasad AS, Mukhtar H, Beck FW, et al. Dietary zinc and prostate cancer in the TRAMP mouse model. J Med Food. 2010 Feb;13(1):70-6.
99) Costello LC, Franklin RB. The clinical relevance of the metabolism of prostate cancer; zinc and tumor suppression: connecting the dots. Mol Cancer. 2006;5:17.
100) Costello LC, Franklin RB. Cytotoxic/tumor suppressor role of zinc for the treatment of cancer: an enigma and an opportunity. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther. 2012 Jan;12(1):121-8.
101) Medarova Z, Ghosh SK, Vangel M, Drake R, Moore A. Risk stratification of prostate cancer patients based on EPS-urine zinc content. Am J Cancer Res. 2014;4(4):385-93.
102) Gonzalez A, Peters U, Lampe JW, White E. Zinc intake from supplements and diet and prostate cancer. Nutr Cancer. 2009;61(2):206-15.
103) Epstein MM, Kasperzyk JL, Andren O, et al. Dietary zinc and prostate cancer survival in a Swedish cohort. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Mar;93(3):586-93.
104) Chen X, Che X, Wang J, et al. Zinc sensitizes prostate cancer cells to sorafenib and regulates the expression of Livin. Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai). 2013 May;45(5):353-8.
105) Prasad AS, Beck FW, Bao B, et al. Zinc supplementation decreases incidence of infections in the elderly: effect of zinc on generation of cytokines and oxidative stress. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Mar;85(3):837-44.
106) Netter A, R Hartoma, K Nahoul. Effect of zinc administration on plasma testosterone, dihydrotestosterone and sperm count. Arch Androl. 1981, Aug;7(1):69-73.
107) Accessed Apr 16 2017.
108) Suter, Andreas, R Saller, et al. Improving BPH symptoms and sexual dysfunctions with saw palmetto preparation. Results from a pilot trial. Phytother. Res. Feb 2013.
109) Ghorbanibirgani, Alireza, Ali Khalili, and Laleh Zamani. “The Efficacy of Stinging Nettle (Urtica Dioica) in Patients with Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: A Randomized Double-Blind Study in 100 Patients.” Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal 15.1 (2013): 9–10. PMC. Web. 18 Apr. 2017.